Research Output


IMG 7057


Engraving from the title page of Herman Boerhaave’s Sermo academicus, de comparando certo in physicis (1715).



Conference Papers


  • Verwaal, R. 'Crying Over Spilled Milk: Chemistry, Drugs, and Breastfeeding in the Eighteenth Century,' HHA, 22 June.
  • Kennaway, J. 'Guts and Nerves: The Connection between the Passions of the Soul and the Body in the Long Eighteenth Century,' HHA, 21 June.
  • Knoeff, R. 'From Places of Illness to Regions of Health: On the Eighteenth-Century Changing Politics of the Airs, Waters and Places Tradition in the Low Countries', HHA, 21 June.
  • Verwaal, R. 'Sweat it Out: Johannes de Gorter and Sudorifics in the Dutch Republic', Humours, Mixtures, Corpuscles, Pisa, 20 May.
  • Verwaal, R. 'Making Milk: Breast Pumps and Galactagogues in Enlightenment Europe', Stipendiatenkolloquium, Gotha, 26 April.


  • Verwaal, R. 'Galactogogen: Melk-makende middelen en 
het zog der vrouwen in de 18e eeuw', Scaliger Institute, University of Leiden, 23 November.
  • Verwaal, R. 'Boerhaave in Groningen: Sporen van studenten en scheikunde in Stad en Ommeland, 1700–1775', Chemisch Historische Groep van de KNCV, Universiteitsmuseum, Groningen, 3 June.
  • Verwaal, R. 'Pispotten en kruikezeikers: Historische voorbeelden van urine verzameling,' Department of Urology and Nephrology, UMCG, 17 March.


  • Hendriksen, M. 'Boerhaave's Mineral Chemistry and Its Influence on Eighteenth-Century Pharmacy in the Northern Netherlands', HSS, San Francisco, 19 November.
  • Verwaal, R. 'Lifeblood: Chemistry of Blood in Eighteenth-Century Medicine', HSS, San Francisco, 19 November.
  • Knoeff, R. 'Jerome Gaub (1705-1780), Noxious Powers and the Pathology of the Soul', Ghent University, 5 November.
  • Hendriksen, M. 'Metals and Gemstones: Vitalist Natural Bodies in Eighteenth-Century Medicine?', ISECS, Rotterdam, 29 July.
  • Verwaal, R. 'Blood Ties: Chemistry of the Body and Classifying Disease', ISECS, Rotterdam, 29 July.
  • Hendriksen, M. 'The ‘Stone’ that Stuck: Lapis Haematites', 6th Gewina, Woudschoten, 19 June.
  • Verwaal, R. 'Sweat: Materiality and Fluidity of Perspiration in in Eighteenth-Century Medicine', 6th Gewina, Woudschoten, 19 June.
  • Verwaal, R. 'Clotting: Chemical Histories of Blood in the Dutch Republic, 1700–1750', SHAC, Cambridge, 15 June.
  • Hendriksen, M. 'Researched and Ridiculed? Gemstones in 18th C Dutch medicine and pharmacy', Gems in Transit, Warwick, 18 May.
  • Verwaal, R. 'Sensing Sweat and the Porous Boundaries of Disciplines', AD HOC, Cambridge, 18 May.
  • Hendriksen, M. 'From Chrysopoeia to Guhr: Boerhaave’s Changing Understanding of Minerals and Its Influence on Eighteenth-Century Medicine', Agricola, Groningen, 2 March.
  • Verwaal, R. 'Urine Matters: Materiality and the History of Pee', PhD conference, Rolduc, 22 January.


  • Hendriksen, M. 'Preserving and Recycling Knowledge: Coloured Glass in the Netherlands, 1650–1800', Max Planck colloquium, Berlin, 10 November.
  • Verwaal, R. 'Crossing Bodily and Disciplinary Boundaries: Chymistry of Urine in Leiden, c. 1700', 5th SHAC, Amsterdam, 23 October.
  • Knoeff, R. 'Jerome Gaub, Noxious Powers and the Pathology of the Soul', Vital Matters workshop, Groningen, 29 August.
  • Hendriksen, M. 'Metals, Gemstones: Vitalist Natural Bodies in Eighteenth-Century Medicine?' Vital Matters workshop, 29 August.
  • Verwaal, R. 'Pisse-Prophets: The Chemistry of Urine in the Leiden Laboratory', Vital Matters workshop, Groningen, 29 August.
  • Looijenga, A. 'Boerhaave’s pupils in the Netherlands: An inventory of Students and Dissertations', Vital Matters workshop, Groningen, 29 August.
  • Knoeff, R. 'Panel: The ‘Usefulness’ of History for the Practice of Medicine, 1750-today', Situating medicine: New directions, Warwick, 5 June.
  • Knoeff, R. 'Scientific Hero – but why? Ernst Cohen on Herman Boerhaave and his contribution to chemistry', Van ’t Hoff Lab 110 years, Utrecht, 16 May.
  • Knoeff, R. 'Verlichte dokters, verborgen krachten. Over geneeskunde en vitalisme in the eeuw van de rede' [Enlightened doctors, hidden forces: on medicine and vitalism in the Age of Reason], VNVNG Gent, 14 March.


  • Verwaal, R. 'Bloodlines: A Vitalist Legacy and Boerhaave's Chemistry of Bodily Fluids', Early Modern History, Groningen, 25 November.
  • Knoeff, R. 'Boerhaave and Gaub on the Nervous System', Scientiae, Warwick (UK), 24 October.
  • Hendriksen, M. ‘Quicksilver Doctors: Mercury in 18th-Century Laboratory Practice and Medical Theory.’ ICHSTM, Manchester, 22-28 July.
  • Knoeff, R., M. Hendriksen & R. Verwaal, ‘The History of Chemistry Roadshow’, 5th Gewina, Woudschoten, 14-15 June.
  • Hendriksen, M. ‘Quicksilver Doctors’, Scientiae, Warwick, 18-20 April.
  • Knoeff, R. 'Herman Boerhaave and the Philosopher's Stone', Wonderful Worlds of botany, alchemy and esotericism, The Ritman Library, Amsterdam, 22 March.


  • Knoeff, R. 'Enlightenment Doctors, Peculiar Powers', Agricola, Groningen, 26 November.

© 2017 Vital Matters – Dr. Rina Knoeff, University of Groningen